Huntington University is a Christian liberal arts college in Indiana

history style sheet

Last Modified: February 2006

Section I: Sample Footnote Citations

Historians generally use "Chicago Style" formatting for papers and reports. The notes which follow give a sample format for footnote citations which include, respectively: a book, an article, an anthology-series-collected volume; and then samples for the second use of the same source.

For additional assistance, information, or examples, see the relevant sections of Mary Lynn Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing in History, 4th edition, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2004, which provides a condensed presentation of Chicago Style, and Jacques Barzun and Henry F. Graff, The Modern Researcher, Fifth Edition, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. For an expanded digest of Chicago Style, see Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Sixth Edition, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. A copy of the full Chicago Manual is available for consultation in the History Office, Loew 271.

Underlining may be substituted for italics.

This format substitutes the "short title" approach for the use of ibid., op. cit., and other Latin terms since it is less cumbersome and clearer both to the reader and writer. For further information on this, see Mary Lynn Rampolla, Pocket Guide, 2004, 87-88.

Notice that commas set off the relevant information, that publishing information is in parentheses, and that the year of a periodical is in parentheses. Some formats omit the publisher's name in footnotes, but full information in the notes helps the reader assess the source given without the nuisance of having to look in the bibliography. If the place of publication is well-known (such as New York or Boston), then the name is sufficient. If the place is more obscure, the state abbreviation should be added.

Chicago Style does not use "p." or "pp." for the pages. You may use them or not, as you prefer, just be consistent.

For a more complete discussion and examples of how to footnote various sources and materials (including Internet sources), see Rampolla, Pocket Guide, 2004, 85 ff. A reference index is on page 86.


1-See Jeffrey D. Webb, My Favorite Oxymorons (Huntington IN: Pretty Snappy Publications, 1999), 27-33.
2-The problem is discussed in Paul E. Michelson, "Really Revolting Pleonasms and What to Do About Them," Journal of Pseudo Studies, Vol. 137 (1989), 106-588.
3-Dwight Vonder Brautigam, "My Pal, the Palindrome," in: Revilo P. Oliver, ed., Able Was I Ere I Saw Elba (Erie PA: Aha Press, 1881), 333-666.
4-See Michelson, "Pleonasms," 1989, 222.
5-According to both Voltaire and Larry King, quoted in Webb, Oxymorons, 1999, 179.
6-This theory is supported by Brautigam, "Palindrome," 1881, 406-410, but completely demolished by Webb, Oxymorons, 1999, 49-87.
7-An amusing attempt to blame the decline of civilization in Huntington, Indiana on the water may be found in B. Powell Jack, "The Poisoned Wells of Bourgeois City," n.d., <> (Accessed: 19 February 2004).

Section II: Sample Bibliographical Citations

For bibliographical citations, you can use Chicago Style or a modified Chicago Style. The principal permitted modifications are to include 1) the page numbers for periodical or articles; 2) showing the total pages in a book; 3) the use of "Vol." to indicate the volume; 4) commas setting off information in the citation instead of colons or periods. The bibliography gives complete page numbers for a source, not just the pages consulted or referred to since it gives an idea of how substantive the book is.

For more detail, consult Rampolla, Pocket Guide, 2004, 102 ff. A bibliographical reference index is on p. 103.

The sources given in Section I above would be listed alphabetically in a bibliography as follows:


Brautigam, Dwight Der, "My Pal, the Palindrome," in: Revilo P. Oliver, ed.,
Able Was I Ere I Saw Elba, Erie PA: Aha Press, 1881, 333-666.

Jack, B. Powell, "The Poisoned Wells of Bourgeois City,"
n.d., <> (Accessed: 19 February 2004).

Michelson, Paul E., "Really Revolting Pleonasms and What to do About Them,"
Journal of Pseudo Studies, Vol. 137 (1989), 106-588.

Webb, Jeffrey D., My Favorite Oxymorons, Huntington IN:
Pretty Snappy Publications, 1999, xvii + 386 pp.

Section III: In-Text Notes/Citations

In-text notes are generally verboten in history papers. They are not permitted for the following reasons:
1. They give the appearance of treating all sources and references as equally valid;
2. They make it hard to assess the authority of references as one reads; and
3. They treat references solely as citations, whereas notes have many additional functions.
For more detail, consult Rampolla, Pocket Guide, 2004, 81-82 ff., and Barzun and Graff, The Modern Researcher , 1992, 296 ff.